Deal reached at United Nations climate conference in Poland

Participants attend the COP24 U.N. Climate Change Conference 2018 in Katowice Poland on Dec. 13

Participants attend the COP24 U.N. Climate Change Conference 2018 in Katowice Poland on Dec. 13

"You can be proud", Mr Kurtyka said.

With the political climate process sputtering on well into its 3rd decade as emissions rise remorselessly, activists have stepped up grassroots campaigns of civil disobedience to speed up action.

Executive Secretary of UN Climate Change Patricia Espinosa, left, and UN Secretary General, Antonio Guterres, right, attend the COP24 summit.

Ministers at the COP24 talks must agree on a common rule book to make good on promises they made in the landmark 2015 Paris accord, which vowed to limit global temperature rises to "well below" two degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit).

Nations on Sunday struck a deal to implement the landmark 2015 Paris climate treaty after marathon UN talks that failed to match the ambition the world's most vulnerable countries need to avert unsafe global warming.

And a recent report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, or IPCC, concluded that while it is possible to cap global warming at 1.5C by the end of the century compared to pre-industrial times, this would require a dramatic overhaul of the global economy, including a shift away from fossil fuels.

"I think we have a landing zone".

Earlier in the day, Gebru Jember Endalew, chair of the Least Developed Countries negotiating group, said delegates had reached a "landing zone" of compromise after negotiations sailed past their Friday deadline and deep into the weekend.

At their heart, negotiations were quesitons as to how each nation funds action to mitigate and adapt to climate change, as well as how those actions are reported.

Developing nations wanted more clarity from richer ones over how the future climate fight will be funded and pushed for so-called "loss and damage" measures.

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"It is a bit hard to compromise when there are 190-plus countries".

Speaking at the official opening of the summit on December 3, Polish President Andrzej Duda said his country was "ready to take its share of responsibility for worldwide security", including in terms of climate policy.

"If Brazil's language is allowed to stay, it will embed the double counting of emissions reductions in the Paris Agreement. undermine the ability of carbon markets to drive emissions down", said EDF's Alex Hanafi.

Among the highlights of this COP, two major industries - the sports and the fashion worlds - joined the movement to align their business practices with the goals of the Paris Agreement, through the launch of the Sports for Climate Action Framework, and the Fashion Industry Charter for Climate Action.

Another stumbling block could be how ambitious countries are in their renewed pledges ahead of a 2020 stock-take of the Paris deal's progress.

A deal on the rules that govern the Paris climate accord appeared within grasp Saturday, as officials from nearly 200 countries worked to bridge remaining differences after two weeks of United Nations talks in Poland.

The idea of being legally liable for causing climate change has always been rejected by richer nations, who fear huge bills well into the future.

Another issue causing problems is the question of "market mechanisms", where countries can buy carbon credits from each other as a way of reducing their emissions.

But the US, Saudi Arabia, Russia and Kuwait objected, leading to watered-down wording.

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