Iran's Foreign Minister Mohammad Javad Zarif said the USA and its regional allies were responsible for the attack.
The four dead gunmen are understood to have been part of a group affiliated with the Arab Struggle Movement for the Liberation of Ahvaz, a separatist group that typically carries out night-time attacks on oil infrastructure in Iran's Ahvaz province.
He did not name the regional states he believed were to blame. A doctor said the boy "was wearing a black shirt when he was killed because he was at a mourning ceremony", referring to Ashoura, an annual commemoration mourning the 7th century death of Prophet Muhammad's grandson Hussein, one of Shi'ite Islam's most beloved saints.
If the terrorist attack in Ahvaz was part of a larger Saudi and UAE escalation in Iran, their goal is likely to goad Iran to retaliate and then use Tehran's reaction to spark a larger war and force the U.S. to enter since Riyadh and Abu Dhabi likely can not take on Iran militarily alone (indeed, after spending roughly $6bn a month, they have failed to defeat the Houthi guerillas in Yemen).
A 4-year-old boy who was wounded during Saturday's terror attack on a military parade in the Iranian city of Ahvaz has died, Iran's state TV reported on Sunday.
It specifically mentions "providing assistance" to Khuzestan Arabs - the minority group in Iran that the Ahvazi attack perpetrators claim to represent. "You have the Saudi Crown Prince saying that he's going to take the fight inside of Iran, you have the advisor to the UAE Crown Prince today on Twitter saying that this was not a terrorist attack, that this was declared policy.mindful of that picture, it is not completely inconceivable that Iranians are going to be looking to Saudi Arabia and potentially the U.S.as being behind these attacks".
He added: "The small puppet countries in the region are backed by America, and the U.S.is provoking them and giving them the necessary capabilities". Saudi Arabia hasn't responded to the allegations.
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The attack dominated Iranian newspaper front pages on Sunday.
Little is known about the al-Ahvaziya group, but Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps (IRGC) spokesperson Ramezan Sharif told ISNA it was "funded by Saudi Arabia".
It was one of the worst ever attacks against the Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corp, the sword and shield of Shia clerical rule in Iran since its 1979 Islamic Revolution.
Meanwhile, Supreme Leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei described the attack as exposing "the atrocity and viciousness of the enemies of the Iranian nation".
He confirmed that those terrorists involved in the attack had all been killed and that their enablers "will be identified to the last person".
Iran had previously warned about "members of these terrorist groups" residing in Denmark and Netherlands and had called for their arrest and trial, IRNA reported, citing Foreign Ministry spokesman Bahram Qassemi. There he'll face a Trump administration committed to convincing member states that Iran is the source of all the world's security threats.
Khuzestan, which has a large ethnic Sunni Arab community, was a major battleground of the 1980s war with Iraq and it saw unrest in 2005 and 2011, but has since been largely quiet.
Arab separatists groups have operated in the region for years, according to the New York Times.
The Iraqi border crossing authority said Saturday that the Iranian side was temporarily closing al-Sheeb and al-Shalamcha border crossings between the two countries after the attack.