Up next for Celtic is a third-round qualifying tie against AEK Athens, with the first leg at Parkhead next week.
The Scottish champions host AEK in the third qualifying round on Wednesday before the return in Greece next week.
They lost 4-3 on aggregate to Malmo in the play-off round in 2015-16.
As a seeded club in the draw, Celtic could have been drawn against the victor of Qarabag vs. BATE Borisov, both of whom have been recent competitors in the Champions League group stages.
Brendan Rodgers is pleased to have seen Celtic show a different side to their game in grinding out a goalless draw against Rosenborg in the Champions League qualifiers.
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The two-legged ties between all the sides that make it through to this last stage will take place on August 21 and 22, with the second legs a week later on August 28 and 29.
Four-time European champions Ajax must beat Standard Liege and then either Slavia Prague or Dynamo Kiev to reach the Champions League's group stage.
The winners will qualify for the group stage, with the draw being held in Monaco on Thursday, 30 August.
Celtic have been drawn to face Malmo of Sweden or Videoton of Hungary in the Champions League play-off round, if they can defeat AEK Athens.